Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)


This is a human-readable summary of (and not a substitute for) the license. Disclaimer.
You are free to:

•    Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format

•    Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material

•    for any purpose, even commercially.

•    The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

Under the following terms:

•    Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.

•    No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.


•    You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.

•    No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.

Nomenclature (for international licenses)
The 4.0 licenses are referred to as "international."

Version 3.0 licenses were referred to as "unported" licenses until 2010, at which point they were re-branded as the "international" licenses. At that point, CC added a global flag to the licenses and deeds and changed the reference in the Chooser (among other things). In the 1.0, 2.0, and 2.5 versions, the international licenses were called the “generic” licenses. The generic licenses were drafted to conform with U.S. copyright law.

Starting with version 3.0, Creative Commons drafted its core suite of licenses to conform to relevant international treaties and drafting conventions. In this sense, version 3.0 and the current 4.0 international license suites are jurisdiction-agnostic: these licenses do not mention and are not drafted against any particular jurisdiction's laws or statutes. They are intended to function without adjustment in all jurisdictions around the world.

License scope (beyond copyright)

Sui generis database rights
The 4.0 international suite licenses database rights along with copyright. Where the use of a database under a CC license implicates sui generis database rights, whether or not copyright is implicated, that use is subject to the terms and conditions of the license. If sui generis rights are not implicated—for example, if the use is in a jurisdiction where these rights do not exist, or if the database is not protected by the laws of a jurisdiction where such rights exist— such uses are not regulated by the license if copyright or neighboring rights do not apply. A few early (2.0, 2.5) European jurisdiction license ports also licensed database rights subject to the terms and conditions of the license.

In 3.0, the international (unported) license suite does not mention sui generis rights. However, ported 3.0 licenses for jurisdictions where those rights exist address them according to CC's 3.0 database rights policy. Under this policy, version 3.0 EU jurisdiction ports must license sui generis rights subject to the terms and conditions of the license just like copyright and neighboring rights, but also must waive license restrictions and conditions (attribution, ShareAlike, etc) for uses triggering database rights—so that if the use of a database published under a CC license implicated only database rights but not copyright, the CC license requirements and prohibitions would not apply to that use. The license conditions and restrictions, however, continue to apply to all uses triggering copyright. Other ports and the 3.0 international license are silent on sui generis database rights: databases and data are licensed (i.e., subject to restrictions detailed in the license) to the extent copyrightable, and if data in the database or the database itself are not copyrightable the license restrictions do not apply to those parts (though they still apply to the remainder). Thus, regardless of the CC 3.0 license at play (unported, an EU port, another port), uses that implicate only database rights will not trigger the license conditions, while uses that implicate copyright will.

Neither the international nor the ported licenses that address database rights export the sui generis rights to jurisdictions where such rights are not recognized (the ported licenses accomplish this as well through inclusion of a territoriality limitation). This avoids the imposition of restrictions based on sui generis rights via contract where those rights are not enforceable or recognized. You may compare how different jurisdictions implemented this section of the license.

Trademark and patent explicitly not licensed
In the 4.0 licenses, trademark and patent rights are expressly mentioned as not among the rights licensed.

No CC license version licenses patent and trademark rights along with copyright. These rights are treated separately and are not covered by the license. In 4.0, this was made explicit to avoid confusion. However, in all license versions, implied licenses may come into play where these rights would interfere with exercise of the rights granted by the CC license.